Help Guide to In-Text Referencing

Guide to In-Text Referencing


Harvard, Australian Harvard, and APA referencing styles all require in-text referencing. In-text referencing with the Harvard and Australian Harvard styles is identical.


Sentences in your text that contain information from one or more sources must include in-text referencing.


Common knowledge does not need to be referenced.


The following information needs to be included in an in-text reference:

  • The author(s)
  • The publication year
  • The page number (if appropriate)

An in-text reference can be placed at the end of a sentence in brackets. Alternatively, the name of the author(s) can be included in the sentence, and not in the brackets.


If there are two authors, both can be included in the in-text reference, separated by an ampersand (&). If there are more than two authors, you only need to include one author followed by ‘et al’, as shown in the examples.


If you used more than one source for a particular sentence, you must include all of these sources, as shown in the examples.


Harvard and Australian Harvard Examples

Horizontal gene transfer occurs more commonly in bacteria than in eukaryotes (APS 2003).

The CDC (2007) estimated the cost of hospital-acquired bacterial infections in the United States to be US$6 billion per year.

Antibiotic resistance is becoming more of an issue now due to the decreased rate of discovery of new antibiotics (ABC 2012, p. 80).

A PGD biopsy involves the removal of one or two blastomeres from an embryo (Kneebone & McDonald 2014).

ICSI involves sperm being directly injected into an egg (Dayal et al 2011).

People often misuse antibiotics in an attempt to cure coughs and colds (CDDEP 2011, Sterner 2004).


APA Examples

Horizontal gene transfer occurs more commonly in bacteria than in eukaryotes (APS, 2003).

The CDC (2007) estimated the cost of hospital-acquired bacterial infections in the United States to be US$6 billion per year.

Antibiotic resistance is becoming more of an issue now due to the decreased rate of discovery of new antibiotics (ABC, 2012, p. 80).

A PGD biopsy involves the removal of one or two blastomeres from an embryo (Kneebone & McDonald, 2014).

ICSI involves sperm being directly injected into an egg (Dayal et al, 2011).

People often misuse antibiotics in an attempt to cure coughs and colds (CDDEP, 2011; Sterner, 2004).